# Roman Numbers - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

While you consider numericals at present, the first thing that pops in your head is the decimal system we utilize everyday. This method, however, is not the only approach to represent numbers. There are a lot of approaches used by various cultures all over the world that use all kinds of characters. One such approach is Roman numbers.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numerals have become a method of expressing numbers using a blend of letters from the Latin alphabet. It persisted across the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still taught in school, which is probably why you have stumbled upon this article.

Today, we are going to walkthrough Roman numerals, definition, how they function, and how to convert Roman numbers to regular numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

Primarily, let's look at a quick look at the past of Roman numerals. Roman numericals were initially utilized by the ancient Romans, as you might have expected from the name. They were employed in several angles of the Roman world, including business, architecture, and even warfare.

Nowadays, its widespread use is mainly attributed to aesthetic reasons. You might have seen Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, page numbering, chapter numbers, copyright dates, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman numeral approach consist of numbers utilizing a blend of letters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are combined to make groups that portray numericals. Seven alphabets, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numericals 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, respectively. You can then blend these numbers to portray any value in the number system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Although the decimal system is based on the ideas of place value, Roman numbers are based on cumulative and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman number's numeric values are based on the sum of the values of its particular parts. One more important distinction is that the decimal system is based on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numerals are based on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's look at a few practical examples of Roman numbers.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades back in 2008. If we observe the numericals in the name, we see it includes a V in it. This is due to the fact numerical 5 in Roman numerals is described by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Therefore, we understand that this is the 4th entry in the series using the properties we will discuss subsequently in the article.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the latest to enter the original trilogy. Looking at the value represented, it comprises a V followed by an I. Hence, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, comprehending this Star Wars film is the 6th entry in the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is crucial to know the numeric value of all the letters. To assist you make this operation easy, here is a chart with every Latin characters with defined number values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numbers to Regular Numericals

Now that we have the handy table of Roman numerals, we can utilize that data to transform numbers back and forth quickly. Following these steps, you will transform these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Convert Roman numerals to Everyday Numbers

To convert Roman numerals to decimal numbers, we will utilize the linear and subtractive principles we went through.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is lesser in value, then add the both values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is greater in value, deduct the Roman number on the right out of the Roman numeral to its left.

All you must do now is repeat this method unless you reach the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's take a look how you can convert Roman numbers with a few examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, that is L or 50.

The Roman number to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is lesser than 50, we add the two values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and get 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Because 5 is less than 70, we add the two values and get 75.

The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 75, we sum the both values and the result is 76.

We cease here at the end of the Roman numeral group. Consequently, the Roman number LXXVI is equivalent to the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Start at the leftmost Roman number, which is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Because 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value refers to 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 1900, we sum the both values and we find 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1902 and the answer is 1903.

Given that we have arrived the end of the Roman number group, we stop here with our result. Therefore, the Roman number MCMIII is as same as the decimal number 1903.

With this data and a little practice, you will transform Roman numbers to decimal numbers like a pro!

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